Genocides, Politicides, and Other Mass Murder Since 1945, With Stages in 2008

Those countries at Stage¹ 7 are currently at the mass killing stage.  They are highlighted in bold type.  They have active genocides, recurring genocidal   massacres, or ongoing politicides. They are erupting.  The others are at various stages of dormancy (4 through 6,) but could erupt again.  Note that lower stages continue during higher stages - the stages are not linear, but are simultaneous operations, in which "lower" stages are logically necessary for "higher" stages, but continue during the "higher" stages.  The table is organized by region.  Within a region, countries are listed in order of their potential for mass killing, by stages. Not all politicides since 1945 appear on this chart because some countries where politicide has occurred have become democracies  (e.g. East Germany, Poland, Romania, Mongolia) and are not now at stage 4 or above.

 ¹ To better understand the different stages of genocide as presented in the chart, see Gregory Stanton's 8 stages model here

 

© The list below is a copy of a list located in 2008 Genocide Watch website

AFRICA
NATION YEARS OF EPISODES SINCE 1945 CUMULATIVE CIVILIAN DEATH TOLL MAJOR KILLERS MAIN DIVISIONS HIGHEST STAGE in 2008

Sudan - south, Nuba region

1956 - 1972, 1983-2005

 

 

2 million Nuer, Dinka, Christians, Nuba, southerners

Khartoum gov‘t NIF gov‘t, militias, rebels

 

Political, religious, racial, ethnic

 

 

 

 

Sudan - Darfur 2003 -present 250,000+ Zaghawa, Fur, Massaleit, & black Africans Janjaweed Arab militias, Sudan government Racial, ethnic, political 7 - Politicide, Genocide
Sudan - south present Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk, other African groups Sudan government Political, racial, ethnic, religious 6-Preparation
Democratic Republic of the Congo 1945 - 1960 1960 - 1965 1,000‘s Africans 1,000‘s civil war Colonial forces Rebels, army Racial, colonial, economic Political, ethnic 7 - Politicide, Genocidal massacres
1977 - 1979, 1984 1,000‘s civil war Rebels, army
1994 - 1997 80,000 Hutus, Banyamulenge, 1 million (civil war) Kabila/ Rwandan army, Ugandan, Rwandan armies, rebels, DRCongo, allied armies Political, ethnic
1994 - present 40,000Hema,Lendu Ethnic militias Ethnic
1997 - present 2.5 million (civil war) War-lord led militias, DRC army Political, economic, ethnic, national
Somalia 1988 - present 2006 - 100,000 Somalis, Isaaq clan Warlord/clan militias Political, clan 7 - Massacres
present Islamists, Ethiopian army; Islamists
Kenya 1952 - 1960 1991 - 1993 2007-present 1,500 Kikuyu, 100‘s colonials 1,000‘s Nilotics 1500+ Kikuyu, Luo, Luhya, Masai,other ethnic groups Colonial forces, MauMau Kikuyu Ethnic militias Ethnic youth gangs Ethnic, political 7 - Genocidal Massacres
Ethiopia 1945 - 1974 1974 - 1985 1994 - 2000 2001 present 150,000 Oromo, Eritreans, Somali 750,000 Class enemies, Oromo 100,000 Eritrea war Ethnic minorities Oromo Anuak in Gambella Selassie monarchy Derg communists Army (Ethiopian Defence Forces) Army (EDF) Army (EDF) National, religious, ethnic National, ethnic, religious Ethnic, racial, economic, political 7 - Genocidal massacres
Chad 1965 - 1996 2005 -present 10,000‘s southern Saras, civil war 1000‘s Zaghawas, Fur Gov‘t army, Libyan army, rebels Sudan-backed militias Ethnic, racial, religious, political Political, ethnic 7 - Genocidal massacres
Uganda 1972 - 1979 1980 - 1986 1994 - present 300,000 Acholi, Lango, Karamoja 250,000 Baganda,, Banyarwanda 10,000‘s LRA foes Amin gov‘t army, police Obote gov‘t army, police Lord‘s Resistance Army Political, ethnic, religious 7 - Massacres
Zimbabwe 1982 - 84 1998 - present 20,000 Matabele MDC supporters, Matabele, urban poor, white farmers Gov‘t army 5th Brigade, militias Army, police, ZANU-PF militias Ethnic, political Political, ethnic, economic 6 - Preparation
Côte d‘Ivoire 2000 - 2007 10,000‘s Dioulas,Immigrants from Burkina Faso, Mali; 1,000‘s southerners Gov‘t, Beté & other militias, death squads; northern rebels National, ethnic, religious 6 - Preparation
Eritrea 1960‘s - 2000; 10,000‘s Eritreans (independence war) Ethiopian armies, police National, religious, ethnic 6- Preparation
1996-present Border war with Ethiopia
Burundi 1959 - 1962 50,000 Hutus Tutsi government Ethnic, political 6 - Preparation
1972 150,000 Hutus 5 -Polarization
Tutsi army
1988 25,000 Hutus
Tutsi army
1993 - 1995 50,000 Tutsis, 100,000
Hutus Hutu rebels,
1996 -2006 100,000 Tutsi, Hutu Tutsi army Rebels, Army
Equatorial 1975 - 1979 50,000 Bubi, Nguema Macias Nguema Political, ethnic 6 - Preparation
Guinea foes regime,
2001 successor
present
Togo 2004 - Eyadema opponents Government Political, ethnic 6 - Preparation
present police, army
Nigeria 1966 - 1970 1 million Ibos Nigerian army Political, ethnic, 6 - Preparation
1972 - 2000 Tiv, Hausa, Yoruba Ethnic mobs religious
(sporadic) Ogoni, others
2001 -present Niger delta groups Nigerian army, police
Algeria 1954 - 1963 160,000 OAS, Harkis, settlers French legions, OAS, rebels Colonial 5 - Polarization
1991 - 2005 50,000 Berbers Islamic Armed Group (GIA) Religious, political
Sierra Leone 1991 - 2003 100,000 (civil war) Revolutionary Political, ethnic 5 -Polarization
United Front,
other militias
Rwanda 1959 - 1963, 1993 10,000‘s Tutsi Hutu gov‘t Ethnic, political 5 -Polarization
800,000 Tutsi, 10,000 Hutu Power
1994 Hutu gov't, Interahamwe
1995 - present 1,000‘s Hutus Rwandan gov‘t
Congo 1959 -1968 5,000 Gov‘t foes Gov‘t army, Colonial 5 -Polarization
Brazzaville police, rebels
1997 - 2000 1,000‘s (civil war) Political, ethnic
Angola 1961 - 1962 40,000 Kongo, 500,000 Colonial army Colonial 5 -Polarization
Umbundu, Ovimbundu
1975 - 2003 Gov‘t, UNITA Political, ethnic
armies, allies
Central African 1966 - 1979 2,000 Bokassa foes Gov‘t army, Political, ethnic 5 -Polarization
Republic police
2001
Liberia 1990 - 2003 100,000 Krahn, Gio, Doe gov‘t army, Political, ethnic 5 - Polarization
Mano, etc. Taylor rebels
Gov‘t, rebels
Botswana 1990 - 100‘s Küng Bushmen, Gov‘t police Economic, 4 - Organization
present Caprivi Namibians political, ethnic
Senegal œ 1990 - 2001 1,000 Diola (civil war) Senegalese Political, ethnic 4 - Organization
Casamance army, rebels
Guinea Bissau 1960‘s -present 1,000‘s Army Political 4 - Organization
Morocco 1976 - 1,000‘s: Sahrawis Moroccan army, Political, ethnic 4 - Organization
Western Sahara present
Polisario rebels
Mali 1990 - 1993 1,000 Touaregs Malian army, Touareg rebels Ethnic, political 4 - Organization
Mozambique 1975 - 1994 1 million by MPLA, Renamo, MPLA Political, ethnic 4 - Organization
Renamo
Madagascar 1947 - 1948 50,000 Malagasy French colonial National, 4 - Organization
nationalists forces racial,
political, ethnic
South Africa 1987 - 1996 1,000‘s Zulus, Xhosa, Gov‘t police, Racial, 4 - Organization
ANC, ethnic militias; political, ethnic
1996 -
present Boer farmers Hate crimes
Egypt sporadic 100‘s: Copts Muslim Religious, 4 - Organization
fundamentalists political
AMERICAS
NATION EPISODES DEATH TOLL KILLERS DIVISIONS STAGE in 2008
Colombia 1948 - 1958 150,000 Political parties Political 7 - Politicide
1975 - present 10,000‘s Marxists, rightist death squads, drug cartels Political, narcotics cartels
Venezuela 1945 - 1970‘s 1,000‘s Yanomami Settlers, miners Racial, ethnic; 5 - Polarization
2004 -present Isolated Chavez opponents Chavez neo-Marxists Political, class
Brazil 1945 -- 1964 300,000 Vargas foes, Indians Gov‘t police, settler militias Political, economic, racial, 4 - Organization
1964 - ethnic
present sporadic 1,000‘s: Kayapo, Yanomami, etc. Settlers, miners
massacres
Guatemala 1950‘s - 200,000 Mayans Gov‘t army, Racial, ethnic, 4 - Organization
1980‘s death squads political
Cuba 1945 - 1959 100‘s rebels Rightist gov‘ts Political 4 - Organization
1959 -
present 7842 —counter - Castro gov‘t
revolutionaries“
Argentina 1976 - 1980 20,000 leftists Army, police Racial, ethnic Political 4 - Organization
Chilé 1973 - 1976 10,000‘s leftists Army, police Political 4 - Organization
Nicaragua 1970 - 1979 1,000‘s Sandinistas Gov‘t army Political 4 - Organization
1980 - 1989 10,000‘s Contras Sandinista army
El Salvador 1980 - 1992 10,000‘s leftists Army, militias Political 4 - Organization
Paraguay 1945 - 1962 1000‘s Indians Army, settlers Racial, ethnic 4 - Organization
1000 Aché Indians
1962 - 1974 Settlers
Mexico Chiapas 1945 - 2001 10,000‘s Indians, gov‘t foes 10,000‘s Mayans Army, police Ethnic, political 4 - Organization
ASIA
NATION EPISODES DEATH TOLL KILLERS DIVISIONS STAGE in 2008
North Korea 1949 - present 2 million + Government Political, class, regional 7 - Politicide
Afghanistan 1978 - 1993 700,000 (civil war) 50,000+ Soviets Mujahadin Political, national, religious, ethnic 7 - Political terrorism, war
1993 - 1996 30,000 (civil war) Warlords
1996 - 2001 1996 - 2001 50,000+ Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara, 10,000+ Taliban,Al Qaeda, NorthernAlliance
2001 - present 1,000‘s gov‘t supporters, Taliban, Al Qaeda,
1,000‘s Taliban NATO, gov‘t
Pakistan 1947 61,000 Hindus Muslim mobs Political, 7 - Massacres
(partition) national, ethnic, (by Al Qaeda &
East Pakistan: 1971 1,500,000 Bengalis West Pakistani religious other terrorists)
( Bengal) & Hindus army
West Pakistan Sindhis Army
1973 - 1977
Baluchistan, Shiites, Christians Sunnis
Sind 1978 - 6 - Preparation
Frontier present Baluchis, Sindis Army (by Baluchi & Sind separatists,
provinces 2003 - Government Islamists, Al- Army)
present supporters, non- Qaeda
Pashtuns
Burma (Myanmar) 1945 - 1948 1948 - 1962 1,000‘s rebels 15,000 rebels,govt Burma Ind Move U Nu govt,rebels Ethnic, political, religious 7 - Politicide, genocidal massacres
1962 - 2007 100,000 Shan, Karen, NDU SLORC, SPDC (Burmese gov‘t)
2007 - present 1000‘s monks, democracy parties SPDC (Burmese gov‘t)
Sri Lanka 1983 - 10000‘s: Tamil Anti-Tamil mobs Ethnic, national, 7 - Politicide
present and Sinhalese civilians Tamil Tiger political, religious genocidal massacres
rebels
Peoples Republic of China 1949 - 1977 35 million+ —class enemies“, religious minorities, Uighurs Muslims, Christians Maoist communist gov‘t, PRC army, Red Guards, police Political,national, class,economic, ethnic, religious 7 - Politicide
1977 - Falun Gong
present
Nepal 1996 - 20,000 anti- Maoist rebels Political 6 - Preparation
present Maoists,
10,000‘s rebels Nepal army
Uzbekistan 1991 - 1,000‘s Muslim funda- Political, 6 - Preparation
Fergana Valley present mentalists religious
2005 - Gov‘t police
present 100‘s opposition
Indonesia 1965 500,000 communists Suharto gov‘t & successors Political, ethnic 6 - Preparation
1966 - 2005 10,000‘s: Acehnese Indonesian army Religious, political, ethnic, national
1,000‘s: Irian Jaya Indonesian army
1,000‘s: Moluccas Laskar Jihad
1,000‘s: Sulewesi Laskar Jihad
India 1947 (partition) 100,000‘s Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs Hindu, Muslim, Sikh mobs National, religious, ethnic, political 6 - Preparation occasional
1949 - 2003 1,000‘s Muslims, 100‘s Sikh‘s, Hindus Hindu mobs, Muslim mobs genocidal massacres
Bihar 1975-present Gov‘t supporters Naxalites Political terrorism
Gujarat 2003 1,000‘s Muslims Hindu mobs Religious genocidal massacres
Kashmir 1947 -present 1000‘s Muslims, Hindus Rebels, police National, religious Nationalist war
Philippines 1972 - present 1,000‘s pro-gov‘t officials, separatists, communists Marxists, gov‘t Army, Moros, Political, religious 6 - Preparation; occasional massacres (by terrorists)
Abu Sayyef
Tibet 1959 - 1,600,000 Tibetan PRC communist National, ethnic, 5 - Polarization
1990‘s Buddhists Chinese gov‘t political religious
Azerbaijan 1988 - 1994 10,000‘s Azeri & Ethnic, political, 5 - Polarization
Armenians Armenian armies religious national
1,000‘s Azeris
Cambodia 1945 - 1966 1966 - 1975 5,000 king‘s foes 15,000 Vietnamese Royal gov‘t Lon Nol gov‘t Political, class, ethnic, religious, national 5 - Polarization
1968 - 1975 360,000 pro-gov‘t Khmer Rouge
1975 - 1979 1.7 œ 2.2 million class enemies, Cham Muslims, city people, Vietnamese, Eastern Zone Khmer Rouge
1979 - 1993 230,000 (civil war) Samrin govt,KR
1993 - 1999 1,000‘s gov‘t foes Hun Sen gov‘t
French Vietnam 1945 - 1953 10,000‘s leftists French colonials Political, class, 4 - Organization
ethnic, national
South Vietnam 1954 - 1975 90,000 leftists South Viet gov‘t
North Vietnam 1954 - 1975 1 million class North Viet gov‘t
enemies,minorities
Peoples 1975 - Vietnamese
Democratic present 10,000‘s boat gov‘t
RepublicVietnam people, reeducated
Laos 1945 - 1960 1960 - 1975 10,000‘s leftists 100,000 anti- Royalists,French Pathet Lao Political, ethnic 4 - Organization
communists,
1975 -present Hmong Peoples Democratic Republic
East Timor 1965 - 2000 200,000 Timorese Indonesian army, Political,national, (Refugees still at
militias ethnic, religious risk in Indonesia)
2007- 2008 Political leaders Military rebels Political Coup attempt
EUROPE
NATION EPISODES DEATH TOLL KILLERS DIVISIONS STAGE in 2008
Russia - 1943 - 1957, 50,000 Chechens, USSR army, Ethnic, national, 6 - Preparation
Chechnya 1994 -present 1,000‘s Russians Russian Army,Chechen rebels religious,political
Russia 1990‘s -present Isolated deaths Neo-fascists Hate crimes
Yugoslavia: 1998 - 2001 10,000 Albanian Yugoslav Army Ethnic, religious, 6 - Preparation
Kosovo Kosovars, national, political
100‘s Serbs
KosovoLibArmy
Yugoslavia 1941 - 1945 650,000 Serbs Croatian Fascists Political, ethnic, 8 - Denial
(Ustashi) national,religious
Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia 1941 -1945 100,000 Croats, Muslims Serb Partisans (Chetniks) 5 - Polarization
(including 1941 1945 - 1987 1 million Tito foes Tito gov‘t
1945 relevant to
later conflicts) 1993 - 2001 1,000‘s dissidents Milosevic gov‘t
Macedonia 1999 - 2001 100‘s Albanians, Macedonians Albanian rebels, Macedonia govt Political, ethnic 5 - Polarization
Bosnia 1992 - 1998 200,000 Muslims, Bosnian Serbs, Ethnic, religious, 5 - Polarization
Croats, Serbs Croats, Muslims national, political (partition)
Georgia: Abkhasia 1993 - present 100‘s Abkhasians Georgian army, separatist rebels National, ethnic, political 5 - Polarization
Northern Ireland 1964 - 2001 3000 Catholics, Irish Republic Religious, class, 5 - Polarization
Protestants Army, Protestant political, national
extremists
Croatia 1991 - 1995 50,000 Serbs, Croats, Bosnian Muslims Croat army, militias, Serbs, Bosnian Ethnic, national, religious,political 4 - Organization
Muslims
USSR (State no 1945 - 1953 15 million+ —class Soviet police, Political, Not applicable
longer exists.) enemies“ 1 army, NKVD national, ethnic, (State no longer
1945 - 1947 million repatriated religious exists.)
Soviet nationals, 6 million+ dissidents NKVD, KGB secret police
USSR national
minorities, esp. in Crimea, Dagestan Ingushetia 1945 - 1991 1945 - 1991 400,000 Karachai, Meshketians,Balkars, Crimean Tatars, Ingushi Red Army, Secret police
MIDDLE EAST
NATION EPISODES DEATH TOLL KILLERS DIVISIONS STAGE in 2008
Iraq 1961 -2003 190,000 Kurds, Shiites, Kuwaitis Iraqi army, presidential guard, Baathists, Political, ethnic, national, religious

8 - Denial

7 - Genocidal

massacres
2003 - present Shiites, Sunni —collaborators“, Kurds Fedayeen, Al Qaeda, insurgent terrorists Religious, political, ethnic, national Politicide
Insurgents U.S., British, Iraqi armies
Israel - Palestine 1948 - 1955, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1,000‘s Israelis, 1,000‘s Palestinians 160 Israelis Irgun, Arab terrorists, Israeli army, police, Fatah, National, religious, ethnic, political

7 - Genocidal massacres

6 - Preparation

1987 - 1993 1,162 Palestinians Israeli army
100‘s Israelis Hamas,Islamic Jihad, other terrorist groups;
2000 -present 1000‘s Palestinians 100‘s Israelis Israeli army, police Hamas, Hezbollah
Lebanon 1974 - 1991 55,000 Christians, Muslims, Druze Religious militias, Hezbollah, Phalangists Religious, political

7 - war, massacres;

6 œ Preparation

1991 - present Lebanese nationalists Syrian secret police Political
2006 Hezbollah, civilians Israeli army Political, religious
Iran 1953 - 1978 26,000 Shah foes Secret police, Religious, ethnic, political, national 5 - Polarization
1978 - 1992 1993 - 60,000 Kurds, monarchists, Bahai Iranian army, revolution guards
present 100‘s gov‘t opponents Secret police Political, religious
2005 -present (potentially:Israeli nation) President, nuclear program Political, religious 6 - Incitements to commit
genocide
Turkey 1984 - 2000 2001 present 10,000‘s Kurds 1000‘s Kurds; 100‘s Turks Turkish army Turkish army PKK Ethnic, religious, national, political

8 - Denial

7 - war , massacres

Syria 1981 - 1982 21,000 Kurds, Sunni Muslims Syrian army, police Political, religious,national 5 - Polarization
Cyprus 1963 - 1967 2,000 Turks, Greek Cypriots Greek Cypriots Turks Political, religious, ethnic, national 5 - Polarization (partition)